• Visible Trade – Trade in goods (produtos);
  • Invisible Imports and Exports – Trade in services (serviços como: bancos, seguro, turismo);
  • Barter or Counter-Trade – Direct exchange of goods, without money (permuta);
  • Balance of Trade – The difference between what a country receives and pays for its exports and imports of goods;
  • Balance of Payments – The difference between a country’s total earnings from exports and its total expenditure of goods;
  • Autarky – The (impossible) situation in which a country is completely self-sufficient and has no foreign trade;
  • Surplus – A positive balance of trade or payments;
  • Deficit – A negative balance of trade or payments;
  • Dumping – Selling goods abroad at (or below) cost price;
  • Protectionism – Imposing trade barriers in order to restrict imports;
  • Tariffs – Taxes charged on imports;
  • Quotas – Quantitative limits on the import of particular products or commodities.


–          INCOTERMS:


  • EXW – Ex Works (named places) – A partir do local de produção
  • FCA – Free Carrier (named places) – Transportador livre
  • FAS – Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment) – Livre no costado
  • FOB – Free on Board (named port of shipment) – Livre a bordo
  • CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination) – Custo e frete
  • CIF – Cost, Insurance, Freight (named port of destination) – Custo, seguro e frete
  • CPT – Carried Paid to (named place of destination) – Tranposte pago até…
  • CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination) – Transporte e seguro pago até..
  • DAP – Delivered at Place (named place of destination) – Entregue no lugar
  • DAT – Delivered at Terminal (named place of destination) – Entregue no terminal
  • DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination) – Entregue ao comprador pago
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